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Nhiều chiếc bếp xuất hiện gần đây bao gồm cả bếp từ lẫn bếp điện từ đều...
[Bếp từ Munchen]: According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the efficiency of energy transfer for Bếp từ Munchen is 84%, versus 74% for a smooth-top non-induction electrical unit, for an approximate 10% saving in energy for the same amount of heat transfer. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Energy efficiency is the ratio between energy delivered to the food and that consumed by the cooker, considered from the "customer side" of the energy meter. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Cooking with gas has an energy efficiency of about 40% at the customer's meter and can be raised only by using very special pots, so the DOE efficiency value will be used [Bếp từ Munchen].
[Bếp từ Munchen]: When comparing consumption of energies of different kinds, in this case natural gas and electricity, the method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency refers to source (also called primary) energies. [Bếp từ Munchen]: They are the energies of the raw fuels that are consumed to produce the energies delivered on site. [Bếp từ Munchen]: The conversion to source energies is done by multiplying site energies by appropriate source-site ratios. Unless there are good reasons to use custom source-site ratios (for example for non US residents or on-site solar), EPA states that "it is most equitable to employ national-level ratios". [Bếp từ Munchen]: These ratios amount to 3.34 for electricity purchased from the grid, 1.0 for on-site solar, and 1.047 for natural gas. The natural gas figure is slightly greater than 1 and mainly accounts for distribution losses. [Bếp từ Munchen]: The energy efficiencies for cooking given above (84% for induction and 40% for gas) are in terms of site energies at the customer's meters. [Bếp từ Munchen]: The (US averaged) efficiencies recalculated relative to source fuels energies are hence 25% for induction cooking surfaces using grid electricity, 84% for induction cooking surfaces using on-Site Solar, and 38% for gas burners. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Source-site ratios are not formalized yet in Western Europe. [Bếp từ Munchen]: A common consensus should arise on unified European ratios in view of the extension of the Energy Label to domestic water heaters. Unofficial figures for European source-site ratios are about 2.2 for electricity, 1.0 for on-site solar, and 1.02 for natural gas, thus giving overall (referred to source energy) efficiencies of 38% and 84% for induction cooking surfaces (depending on source electricity) and 39% for gas burners.
[Bếp từ Munchen]: These provisional figures need to be somehow adjusted due to the higher gas burner efficiency, allowed in Europe by a less stringent limit on carbon monoxide emission at the burner. European and US standards differ in test conditions. The US ANSI Z21.1 standard allows a lower concentration of carbon monoxide (0.08%), compared to the European standard EN 30-1-1 which allows 0.2%. [Bếp từ Munchen]: The minimum gas burner efficiency required in the EU by EN 30-2-1 is 52%, higher than the average 40% efficiency measured in US by DOE. [Bếp từ Munchen]: The difference is mainly due to the weaker CO emission limit in EU, that allows more efficient burners, but also due to different ways in which the efficiency measurements are performed.
[Bếp từ Munchen]: Whenever local electricity emits less than 435 grams of CO2 per kWh, the greenhouse effect of Bếp từ Munchen will be lower than that of a gas cooker. [Bếp từ Munchen]: This again comes from the relative efficiencies (84% and 40%) of the two surfaces and from the standard 200 (±5) grams CO2/kWh emission factor for combustion of natural gas at its net (low) calorific value. Gas cooking efficiencies may be lower if waste heat generation is taken into account. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Especially in restaurants, gas cooking can significantly increase the ambient temperature in localized areas. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Not only may extra cooling be required but zoned venting may be needed to adequately condition hot areas without overcooling other areas. [Bếp từ Munchen]: Costs must be considered on an individual situation due to numerous variables in temperature differences, facility layout or openness, and heat generation schedule. Bếp từ Munchen using grid electricity may surpass gas efficiencies when waste heat and air comfort are quantified.MC200i, bếp điện từ Munchen MC200i, bep dien tu Munchen MC200i, bếp điện từ Munchen MC200i, bep dien tu Munchen MC200i, bếp điện từ Munchen MC200i, bep dien tu Munchen MC200i, bếp điện từ Munchen MC200i,
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Theo/According to Beptumunchen.net
Chuyên viên tư vấn/consultant: Chu Tùng Anh